Characters: Small colonies are usually cup-shaped. They then develop broad, unifacial, upright to horizontal fronds, or become irregularly contorted. Corallites are immersed to long and tubular, the latter being strongly inclined to the margins of upright fronds. They average 3.5 millimetres diameter. Colour: Usually a uniform dark or greenish-brown, sometimes yellowish to grey. Similar species: Turbinaria patula. See also T. mesenterina, which has smaller corallites, more contorted laminae, and does not form long tubular corallites. Habitat: Shallow reefs and rocky foreshores. Abundance: Common in a wide range of reef environments.