Reef Frontiers en-us http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews Fri, 20 Oct 2017 18:21:17 -0500 PhotoPost ReviewPost 5.0 60 ReefKeeper Elite Basic System V2 http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=543&title=reefkeeper-elite-basic-system-v2&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 12:01:14 -0500 Pinpoint ORP Controller w/probe http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=542&title=pinpoint-orp-controller-w-2fprobe&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:59:42 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=542&amp;title=pinpoint-orp-controller-w-2fprobe&amp;cat=8"><img title="orpcontroller2.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/orpcontroller2.jpg" alt="orpcontroller2.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: PINPOINT ORP (REDOX) Controller&quot; is an inexpensive rugged controller complete with a platinum ORP probe. This device will automate another electrical device like an ozonizer or ozone generation unit within a range selected by the user. This full feature controller will accommodate an electrical device up to and including 5 full amps. Comes complete with probe. The PINPOINT ORP Controller&quot; is the perfect way to automate ozone in the aquarium. 110 VAC operation. Never needs calibration. Seachem Reef Status Magnesium/Alk Test Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=541&title=seachem-reef-status-magnesium-2falk-test-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:47:31 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=541&amp;title=seachem-reef-status-magnesium-2falk-test-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="0924_RS_mgnsm.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/0924_RS_mgnsm.jpg" alt="0924_RS_mgnsm.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Four kits in one! Tests for magnesium through a titration based procedure in increments of 12.5 mg/L. Tests for carbonate alkalinity, borate alkalintiy and total alkalinity in 0.1 meq/L resolution through a titration based procedure. The kit resolves borate from carbonate and, along with magnesium, this presents a clear picture of the tank's buffering capacity as well as a very reliable determination of the critical carbonate content required for coral and coraline growth. Each kits can perform 75 determinations for each test. Salifert Magnesium Test 30ppm 50 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=540&title=salifert-magnesium-test-30ppm-50-tests&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:46:16 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=540&amp;title=salifert-magnesium-test-30ppm-50-tests&amp;cat=8"><img title="sat103.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/sat103.jpg" alt="sat103.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: The Salifert magnesium test is very straightforward and does not suffer from calcium and strontium interferences when within certain bounds. It measures in sufficient accurate steps of 30 mg/L with a sharp color change. The kit can perform approx. 50 measurements. Elos Magnesium Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=539&title=elos-magnesium-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:44:28 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=539&amp;title=elos-magnesium-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="elos-mg.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/elos-mg.jpg" alt="elos-mg.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Magnesium (Mg) is present in a high quantity (1.300/1.350 ppm) in natural seawater. Contrary to its (not only quantitative) significance, this element was ignored as an important parameter of the marine aquarium for a long time. In contrast to that we know today that Magnesium creates a remarkable improvement in the growth of calcareous algae and also has a positive influence on the growth of invertebrates and macro algae. The ideal value of Magnesium in the aquarium is: - for the seawater aquarium 1100-1300 mg/Lt Because of the importance of Magnesium, it is necessary to keep inside our marine aquariums, the proper Calcium Level, testing it with an accurate test kit. ELOS AquaTest Mg, as well as all the other titrimetric test kit of this line, grants an high precision thanks to several procedures like the use of calibrated dropper with constant and predefined drops of 0,05 ml each, the validation of its quality, through NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) certified samples, in order to grant accuracy and constant results, the careful stock management to supply to our customers ONLY the most actual and fresh production batch. Hanna Pocket Photometer Marine Alkalinity http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=538&title=hanna-pocket-photometer-marine-alkalinity&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:35:19 -0500 LaMotte Alkalinity Test Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=537&title=lamotte-alkalinity-test-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:33:36 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=537&amp;title=lamotte-alkalinity-test-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="3322.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/3322.jpg" alt="3322.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: LaMotte individual water test kits come supplied with pre-calibrated test tubes and labware to give fast, accurate results. Reagents, labware, and step-by-step instructions are furnished in compact carrying cases. Economical Reagent Refill Packages are available for all kits listed. To convert from ppm to dkh, use this formula. Elos Carbonate Hardness Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=536&title=elos-carbonate-hardness-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:31:31 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=536&amp;title=elos-carbonate-hardness-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="EO4123.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/EO4123.jpg" alt="EO4123.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: ELOS AquaTest KH, as well as all the other titrimetric test kit of this line, grants an high precision thanks to several procedures like the use of calibrated dropper with constant and predefined drops of 0,05 ml each, the validation of its quality, thrugh NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) certified samples, in order to grant accuracy and constant results, the carefull stock management to supply to our customers ONLY the most actual and fresh production batch. HIGHLIGHTS: High precision: thanks to the use of calibrated dropper NIST validation: each batch is validated using NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) samples High number of test per kit: up to 60 tests (with a standard level of 10 dKH) &quot;&quot;Safe reagents&quot;&quot;: reagents and testing procedures are based on Low Risk Reagents. None of Elos test kit are based on Toxic Reagents. Salifert Calcium Test 50-100 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=535&title=salifert-calcium-test-50-100-tests&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:09:16 -0500 PINPOINT Calcium Monitor http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=534&title=pinpoint-calcium-monitor&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:07:44 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=534&amp;title=pinpoint-calcium-monitor&amp;cat=8"><img title="pincal.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/pincal.jpg" alt="pincal.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: he PINPOINT Calcium Monitor&quot; is the only truly affordable and accurate digital Calcium measurement instrument. Powered by a 9-volt battery or the PINPOINT&quot; AC Adapter Kit (not included), the PINPOINT Calcium Monitor&quot; will operate for approximately 150 total hours before battery replacement is visually indicated on the display. The PINPOINT Calcium Monitor&quot; comes complete with Calcium Meter, Calcium Selective Probe and Calibration/probe fluids. Given proper care, the PINPOINT Calcium Monitor&quot; should last a lifetime. PINPOINT Calcium Probe comes with a 10 foot high suppression cable and a BNC connector. Powered by a standard 9-volt battery (not included). Elos Calcium Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=533&title=elos-calcium-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 11:05:50 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=533&amp;title=elos-calcium-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="EO4127.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/EO4127.jpg" alt="EO4127.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: ELOS AquaTest Ca, as well as all the other titrimetric test kit of this line, grants an high precision thanks to several procedures. The accuracy of a titrimetric test kit is, in fact, strictly related to the precision of the drop size (and number). In these test we use calibrated dropper with constant and predefined drops of 0,03 ml each. Even if the sides of the bottle are strongly squeezed, the dropper never dispenses more liquid than what it has been calibrated for, in a constant and predefined amount. Red Sea Phosphate Pro (PO4) High Definition comparator test kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=532&title=red-sea-phosphate-pro28po4-29-high-definition-comparator-test-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:54:09 -0500 Salifert Phosphate Test low &amp; med 60 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=531&title=salifert-phosphate-test-low26amp-3b-med-60-tests&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:52:38 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=531&amp;title=salifert-phosphate-test-low26amp-3b-med-60-tests&amp;cat=8"><img title="sat106.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/sat106.jpg" alt="sat106.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Phosphate testing and removal Phosphate has several negative effects if present in a too high concentration. First of all undesirable algae growth might result. Making an aquarium an unpleasant sight. Phosphate also blocks or retards the growth of corals and calcareous algae. One of the scientific studies shows that a phosphate concentration higher than 0.05 mg/L decreases the growth of calcareous algae by 90%! Washing fish food, which is a rich source for phosphates in a sieve after thawing reduces the input of phosphate tremendously. Also avoiding use of phosphate-rich low-grade activated carbon helps keep phosphate levels as low as possible. Checking the activated carbon for phosphate prior to use is therefore highly recommended. Elos Phosphate Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=530&title=elos-phosphate-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:51:11 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=530&amp;title=elos-phosphate-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="EO4115.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/EO4115.jpg" alt="EO4115.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Phosphate (PO4) build up in the tank appears to be a fairly common problem in freshwater and saltwater aquariums. They are present in most tap water supplies, they are also introduced to aquarium water through fish waste, uneaten fish food, and decaying plant and invertebrate material. Hobbyist end up with rising levels of PO4, leading to the appearance of algae that start to cover the tank panes, the driftwoods, the substrate and just about anything else in the tank. The maximum value of PO4 in aquarium is: - for seawater aquarium 0,01 mg/lt - for fresh water aquarium is 0,5 mg/lt. In deeply planted aquarium the maximum level can achieve up to 1 mg/lt The periodical analytical valuation of phosphate in the aquarium water should be considered by the serious aquarium enthusiast. ELOS AquaTest PO4, as well as all the other colorimetric test kit of this line, grants high accuracy thanks to several procedures. The precision of a colorimetric test kit is, in fact, strictly related to the precision of the colour chart. In these test we use &quot;RealColor&quot; technology. An accurate system to calibrate the colours chart compared to the reagents, on each production batch. In combination with the use of NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) certified samples, this grants high accuracy and constant test results. Salifert Nitrate Test low &amp; med scale 50 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=529&title=salifert-nitrate-test-low26amp-3b-med-scale-50-tests&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:32:54 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=529&amp;title=salifert-nitrate-test-low26amp-3b-med-scale-50-tests&amp;cat=8"><img title="sat105.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/sat105.jpg" alt="sat105.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Nitrate testing When an aquarium has insufficient regions deprived of oxygen (= anaerobic zones) or denitrification proceeds incompletely then nitrate will build-up. A too high nitrate concentration can result in unwanted algae-growth and these might irritate corals in their neighborhood. Nitrate as such also retards coral growth. The nitrate concentration in a proper functioning reef aquarium should preferably be lower than 1 mg/L. Fish-only aquariums would usually show much higher nitrate concentrations. Most test kits use a procedure in which a certain part of nitrate is converted chemically into nitrite and is measured as such. Once again, just as with nitrite testing, amine interference has a major impact on the measured value. If such an interference occurs concentrations much lower than actual will be measured. Pinpoint Nitrate Monitor w/probe http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=528&title=pinpoint-nitrate-monitor-w-2fprobe&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:31:15 -0500 Elos Nitrate (NO3) Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=527&title=elos-nitrate28no3-29-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:28:56 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=527&amp;title=elos-nitrate28no3-29-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="EO4119.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/EO4119.jpg" alt="EO4119.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: ELOS AquaTest NO3, as well as all the other colorimetric test kit of this line, grants high accuracy thanks to several procedures. The precision of a colorimetric test kit is, in fact, strictly related to the precision of the color chart. In these test we use &quot;RealColor&quot; technology, an accurate system to calibrate the colors chart compared to the reagents, on each production batch. In combination with the use of NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) certified samples, this grants high accuracy and constant test results. Seachem Nitrate &amp; Nitrite Test Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=526&title=seachem-nitrate26amp-3b-nitrite-test-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:11:11 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=526&amp;title=seachem-nitrate26amp-3b-nitrite-test-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="MT_Nitrite.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/MT_Nitrite.jpg" alt="MT_Nitrite.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: This kit measures nitrite down to 0.2 mg/L and nitrate down to 2 mg/L in marine or freshwater. Salifert Nitrite Test low &amp; med scale 50 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=525&title=salifert-nitrite-test-low26amp-3b-med-scale-50-tests&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 10:09:52 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=525&amp;title=salifert-nitrite-test-low26amp-3b-med-scale-50-tests&amp;cat=8"><img title="sat105a.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/sat105a.jpg" alt="sat105a.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Nitrite testing Nitrite is a substance that is toxic to fish and invertebrates. It is a misconception that once a tank is through its cycle (first 3 or 4 weeks) that nitrite has vanished. Many nitrite test kits suffer from interference by amines (such as naturally occurring and essential amino acids) resulting in a too low measured value especially if the nitrite concentration is relatively low. Nitrite is converted to nitrate in properly cycled aquariums. The thus formed nitrate is transformed into harmless nitrogen gas (=denitrification). This happens in areas deprived of oxygen within live rock and miscellaneous filter materials. Before it can be transformed to nitrogen gas the nitrate is first converted back to nitrite. When for whatever reason this particular cycle can not be completed, toxic nitrite can be present in significant concentration and readily be detected by test kits that do not suffer from amine interference. Seachem Ammonia Test Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=524&title=seachem-ammonia-test-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 09:53:00 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=524&amp;title=seachem-ammonia-test-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="MT_Ammonia.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/MT_Ammonia.jpg" alt="MT_Ammonia.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: This kit measures total (NH3 and NH4+) and free ammonia (NH3 only) down to 0.05 mg/L and is virtually interference free in marine and fresh water. Free ammonia is the toxic form of ammonia (vs. ionized Ammonia NH4+ which is non-toxic) and thus it is much more important to keep an eye on the level of free ammonia in your system. This kit is based on the same gas exchange technology that is used in the Ammonia Alert and thus is the only kit on the market that can read levels of free ammonia while using ammonia removal products such as Prime, Safe, AmGuard and any similar competing products. The other kits (salicylate or Nessler based) determine the total ammonia by raising the pH of the test solution to 12 or greater. At this high pH all ammonia removal products will breakdown and rerelease the ammonia, thus giving you a false ammonia reading. Salifert Ammonia Test 50 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=523&title=salifert-ammonia-test-50-tests&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 09:51:47 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=523&amp;title=salifert-ammonia-test-50-tests&amp;cat=8"><img title="sat112.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/sat112.jpg" alt="sat112.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Ammonia and ammonium are substances which should be converted rapidly into nitrite followed by nitrate and nitrogen gas. If this does not happen then the aquarium is not fully cycled or biological processes are not proceeding as they should. The Salifert Ammonia test is very straightforward and measures the sum of toxic ammonia and ammonium in just a few minutes. The kit can perform approx. 50 measurements and can detect 0.5 ppm of total ammonia easily RedSea Marine Lab Multi Test Kit http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=522&title=redsea-marine-lab-multi-test-kit&cat=8 Thu, 06 Oct 2011 09:50:07 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=522&amp;title=redsea-marine-lab-multi-test-kit&amp;cat=8"><img title="R-MARINE-LAB.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/R-MARINE-LAB.jpg" alt="R-MARINE-LAB.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Marine Lab Test Kit A complete test kit for marine aquariums. Includes PH (100 tests), Alkalinity (60), Ammonia(45), Nitrite(80) and Nitrate(60) tests John Guest Inline tds meter http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=520&title=john-guest-inline-tds-meter&cat=8 Mon, 01 Aug 2011 10:52:06 -0500 Reef Master Lab Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Reef Master Lab http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=374&title=reef-master-lab-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-reef-master-lab&cat=8 Thu, 20 May 2004 00:00:31 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=374&amp;title=reef-master-lab-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-reef-master-lab&amp;cat=8"><img title="906145.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906145.jpg" alt="906145.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Master test kit for a reef aquarium. Controlled water conditions are of primary importance for the delicate animals found in a reef aquarium. In addition to the basic tests of pH, Alkalinity, Ammonia and Nitrite which are necessary for all sea water aquariums the tests included in this Reef-Lab will assist you in establishing and maintaining the environment for a successful reef aquarium. Nitrate is the less toxic end product of Biological Filtration, which utilizes living colonies of nitrifying bacteria to remove the toxic ammonia that is regularly introduced into the aquarium by fish waste and the decomposition of food. Invertebrates react distressfully to low levels of nitrate. High nitrate levels will stress marine fish making them susceptible to infection. Phosphate is regularly introduced into the aquarium through fish waste and the decomposition of fish food. While nontoxic for fish, high phosphate levels will promote the growth of undesirable algae, which will compete with more delicate marine animals and adversely affecting the appearance of your aquarium. . Excess phosphate is removed by partial water changes with phosphate-free water. Regular testing for phosphate will guide you as to when these essential water changes should be made. Calcium is an essential component in the skeletons of corals and is therefore constantly depleted from the aquarium. To promote healthy coral growth a natural level of calcium must be maintained. Test weekly. For more information on the tests included in the marine lab, please refer to the individual test-lab pages © Red Sea Group 2003 Marine Lab Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Marine Lab http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=373&title=marine-lab-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-marine-lab&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:59:01 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=373&amp;title=marine-lab-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-marine-lab&amp;cat=8"><img title="906144.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906144.jpg" alt="906144.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Master test kit for a marine aquarium Correct water conditions are essential for all marine animals. Performing the tests Included in the Marine Lab will assist in establishing and maintaining a successful aquarium. Marine Lab includes tests for: pH, Alkalinity, Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate. Includes a 0.85 fl.oz. trial bottle of Marine Success Buff supplement. A stable pH is essential for the well being of all aquarium inhabitants. Alkalinity measures the capacity of seawater to absorb the acidic waste produced by fish, without affecting the pH. Maintaining an alkalinity of 2.2 meq/l will prevent sudden fatal drops in pH. Both pH and alkalinity should be tested regularly. Alkalinity level can be adjusted by using a buffering solution such as Marine Success Buff. Ammonia, which is toxic for fish, is regularly introduced into the aquarium by fish waste. An established functioning Biological Filter, which house living colonies of nitrifying bacteria, will convert the ammonia to nitrite and thereafter to nitrate, which are less harmful. Regular testing for ammonia &amp; nitrite will provide a positive indication that your Biological Filter is functioning is in balance with the stocking level. Invertebrates react distressfully to low levels of nitrate. High nitrate levels will stress marine fish making them susceptible to infection. Excess nitrate is removed by partial water changes with nitrate-free water. Regular testing for nitrate will guide you as to when these essential water changes should be made. For more information on the tests included in the marine lab, please refer to the individual test-lab pages Residual Ozone Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Residual Ozone http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=372&title=residual-ozone-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-residual-ozone&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:57:31 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=372&amp;title=residual-ozone-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-residual-ozone&amp;cat=8"><img title="906136.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906136.jpg" alt="906136.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Residual Ozone This kit is specially designed for marine aquarists who apply ozone as a tool for successful aquarium maintenance. Due to its oxidizing capabilities, ozone can break down the harmful waste products produced by fish to less damaging forms, which can be removed by the ozone reactor (protein skimmer). In particular those that turn the aquarium water yellow are broken down effectively leading to crystal clear water. Most importantly ozone kills bacteria that are floating in the water that are a constant threat to sensitive reef creatures. The ideal dosage of ozone will vary for each aquarium. Densely populated aquariums with fish will need more ozone than invertebrate tanks where less waste matter will be produced. The correct amount of ozone will depend on: volume of water, water flow rate through the ozone reactor (protein skimmer), the ozonized air flow rate, fish density and size, type of biological filtration and other equipment. The optimal ozone dosage will result in maximal waste removal. Too much ozone leads to de-naturation of dissolved proteins, which results in less waste removal by the protein skimmer. Excess ozone will also result in oxidation of the seawater components, leading to production of Chlorine, Bromine and other oxidation products. These products are toxic to the aquarium inhabitants. It is important to prevent ozone oxidation products escaping into your aquarium. To achieve this, the ozone dosage should be so low, that these products will not be formed or only in insignificant amounts. As a safety precaution, the ozonated water, returning to the aquarium should be filtered through Carbon and as an extra precaution, strongly aerated. This test kit enables you to check if the ozone dosage is set at a safe and favorable level, or if the carbon filter is still active by detecting the presence of the harmful by-products of ozonization. It is recommended to check the ozonated water, flowing back to your aquarium or filter at least once a week. If the test is positive, it is advisable also to test your aquarium or bio-filter. Recommendations The amount of ozone oxidation products in the water flowing back to the tank or filter, should be 0 ppm. A level of 0.05 ppm (corresponding to Chlorine) is already harmful for both invertebrates and filter bacteria. A concentration like this in the skimmer outflow is however in most cases not immediately dangerous for the bio-filter or aquarium, since most of these products will be driven out by the pumps or powerheads, before they can do any harm. Nevertheless, in this case you should also test your aquarium or bio-filter. Should the level be higher than 0, you have to take immediate action, by changing water and putting airstones in the filter and/or aquarium. To prevent future problems the carbon filter should be renewed or enlarged. The aeration after-treatment should be increased. It is also advisable to lower the ozone production (mg per hour) of your ozonizer. © Red Sea Group 2003 Oxygen Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Oxygen http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=371&title=-oxygen-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-oxygen&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:55:40 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=371&amp;title=-oxygen-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-oxygen&amp;cat=8"><img title="906140.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906140.jpg" alt="906140.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Oxygen The gas Oxygen (O2) comprises of approximately 21% of the volume of air and is vital for the existence of life on earth. Together with carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen forms the closed cycle of gas exchange between plants and animals. Through contact with the air and the photosynthetic activity of green water plants, oxygen dissolves in water. The maximum amount that can dissolve (the saturation level) depends on the temperature and salinity of the water. The warmer the water and the higher the salinity, the lower the saturation level. Cold freshwater is therefore considerably richer in oxygen than warm seawater. The saturation levels for several temperatures and salinities are given in the following table. If the level of dissolved oxygen decreases below a certain critical level, fishes and other aquatic animals will suffer from oxygen deficiency, eventually leading to suffocation. Since aquatic animals require more oxygen at high temperature and at the same time less oxygen is able to dissolve, most problems occur at unsuitably high temperatures. Oxygen deficiency can also be caused by over population of the aquarium, rotting organic material in the tank, a fouled filter or insufficient water circulation. In case of oxygen deficiency fishes and other aquatic animals are usually seen breathing fast or even gasping near the water surface, where the oxygen concentration is slightly higher. Although plants and algae produce oxygen by day, they consume oxygen at night, so that extremely low oxygen levels may occur during the night. This usually happens in tanks with a lot of algae and insufficient water circulation. © Red Sea Group 2003 Silica Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Silica http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=370&title=silica-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-silica&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:53:53 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=370&amp;title=silica-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-silica&amp;cat=8"><img title="906138.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906138.jpg" alt="906138.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Silica Silica (SiO2), Silicic Acid (H2SiO3), Silicate (SiO32-) and several other Silicon (Si)- compounds, are normal constituents of seawater and freshwater. These substances usually occur in low concentrations and are non-toxic. Silicon compounds would be of little relevance to the aquarist, if it were not for the fact that certain microscopic algae called diatoms, use Silica to build their protective covering, that completely encloses the individual cells. Diatoms are always present in small amounts in any aquarium, but if they reproduce to greater densities, their presence can be detected without a microscope as a dark brown growth on all objects in the aquarium. This phenomenon nearly always occurs in a newly set up marine tank, where the clean sand, rocks etc. turn dark brown for several days to two weeks. This brown growth consists of millions of diatoms, that form a pioneer vegetation on the formerly barren surfaces. As the dissolved Silica is used up, the diatoms gradually decrease their numbers to make space for other settling organisms. This initial diatom-bloom, which disappears after 1-2 weeks, should be regarded as a natural and beneficial phase in the development of a new aquarium. Diatom Bloom in established aquariums Under certain circumstances, diatoms may bloom in older aquaria. This is usually caused by a combination of two factors: The diatoms are supplied by sufficient Silica to maintain their growth. The diatoms are not inhibited by the presence of other organisms. This means that the aquarium environment is relatively poor, with insufficient competitors for the diatoms. Such outbreaks can be treated in two ways: Introduce fresh live rocks, more invertebrates and by checking the water parameters, (Nitrate, Phosphate, Calcium, Alkalinity), to establish if the environment is still favorable to maintain many species of algae and invertebrates. Check also your protein skimmer and carbon filter for optimal performance. Testing for the source of the Silica influx. Significant amounts are usually introduced by the tap water used for water changes or as compensation for evaporation. Other possibilities are: use of unsuitable rocks, sand or filter materials, which dissolve significant amounts of Silica into the water. For example, certain kinds of glass based filter substrates for fluidized bed filters may release Silica, facilitated by the constant grinding of the media inside the filter. Although certain water additives may contain some Silica, the amounts involved are seldom relevant, since these additives are usually very much diluted upon dosage. Recommendations The maximum allowable Silica concentration of freshwater used to make up seawater is dependent on the stability of your aquarium ecosystem and on the volume of water changes and freshwater additions. In a well balanced reef aquarium with little need for water changes, a detectable amount of Silica in the freshwater source is generally acceptable. Should, however, diatom blooms tend to occur, measures should be taken to purify freshwater prior to use. Tap water with high Silica levels can be purified by using reverse osmosis filtration. The performance of the equipment should be checked regularly, by testing the Silica level of the filtered water. If the Silica source is found and eliminated, the Silica concentration in the aquarium will decrease naturally, after which the diatom bloom will gradually disappear © Red Sea Group 2003 Copper Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Copper http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=369&title=copperhome2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-copper&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:51:57 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=369&amp;title=copperhome2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-copper&amp;cat=8"><img title="906139.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906139.jpg" alt="906139.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: A treatment for Marine fish Parasites Both beginners and advanced aquarists will experience occasional outbreaks of parasitic diseases like marine white spot (Cryptocaryon, Oodinium). A number of stress factors can be the cause of this problem. For example poor water quality, unsuitable or fluctuating temperature or salinity, as well as social factors. Especially when a new fish is introduced to the tank the chances of problems occurring are greater. The stress brought about by a new inhabitant, can even lower the resistance of the other fish, so they too may become infected. Treatment with Copper such as using Red Sea’s ParaCure, is often the only way to save the fish. The Copper ions are quickly absorbed by surfaces and deactivated in the aquarium. For a treatment to be effective the Copper concentration should be maintained exactly at the therapeutic level of 0.3 ppm for at least 10 days. Lower concentrations will not kill the parasites and may even lead to an increased resistance against the Copper, while overdosing will lead to complications for the fish and even death, since the safety margin of a Copper treatment is very small. The only way to give a Copper treatment that is both safe and effective, is to test the Copper level daily with a reliable kit and to add more treatment to the recommended dosage as necessary. Only Copper ions are effective against parasites! By using Red Sea’s Mini-Lab you are able to accurately maintain the therapeutic level of Copper ions. Chelated Copper has little or no effect. Copper – As a harmful substance Although it is a good treatment for fish parasites, Copper is very toxic to invertebrates. ParaCure should therefore never be used in the presence of invertebrates. Tap water is known to contain Copper in certain areas. This amount could be harmful to your aquarium (especially to a reef aquarium), when you use it for changing water. This Copper Mini Lab enables you to check if any Copper is present in your water supply. An amount of 0.1 mg. per liter (0.1 ppm) can already be harmful to marine invertebrates © Red Sea Group 2003 Phosphate Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Phosphate http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=368&title=phosphate-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-phosphate&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:50:03 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=368&amp;title=phosphate-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-phosphate&amp;cat=8"><img title="906141.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906141.jpg" alt="906141.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Phosphate All living matter, both animal and plant, contains about 1% Phosphorus in the form of Phosphate (PO43-). Every time the fish are fed, some Phosphate is introduced into the aquarium. Waste products of the fish and bacterial breakdown of food remains also introduce Phosphate into the water. In nature a true Phosphorus cycle exists. Phosphate is an important plant fertilizer that stimulates plant growth at very low concentrations. The Phosphate level in unpolluted natural waters is always very low, and Plants use so much that there is always a demand for it. In the aquarium, the fish density is much higher than in nature. In most aquariums the plant growth is insufficient to use up all the Phosphate that is added with feeding, therefore it accumulates in the water. This leads to several undesirable effects, in particular blue, green and hair algae find favorable conditions and grow very fast. Marine invertebrates like corals may loose their zooxanthellae, (tiny brown algae that live in the tissue of invertebrates leading to degeneration and eventually to the death of these sensitive animals. Especially in a reef aquarium, the Phosphate level should be checked every week. The concentration should be as low as possible with 0.3 ppm as an absolute maximum for the reef aquarium. Higher concentrations than this value are not in any way toxic for marine or freshwater fish - the danger lies only in the fact that the water gets over fertilized, which results in algae growth and harm to invertebrates. Recommendations To prevent build up of Phosphate · Keep the fish density low. · Do not overfeed. · Stimulate plant growth (in the marine aquarium, higher algae like Caulerpa’s, as well as soft corals will efficiently use Phosphate). · Remove detritus, dead plants and other dirt. · Perform regular water changes. Use Red Sea’s Red Sea Salt for the marine aquarium. This top quality salt contains neither Phosphate nor Nitrate. · For the marine aquarium: use good protein skimmers like Red Sea’s Berlin or Prizm Protein Skimmers. These highly efficient skimmers clear up waste material, before it can decompose to Phosphate and Nitrate. This Phosphate and Nitrate build up is limited or prevented. © Red Sea Group 2003 Calcium Pro Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Calcium Pro http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=367&title=calcium-pro-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-calcium-pro&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:48:39 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=367&amp;title=calcium-pro-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-calcium-pro&amp;cat=8"><img title="906143.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906143.jpg" alt="906143.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Calcium Pro Corals, calcareous algae and other invertebrates use large amounts of Calcium for the building of their skeletons or shells, which mainly consist of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). Calcium easily precipitates (comes out of solution) as Calcium Carbonate, especially at higher pH values. Because of this, and as a result of continuous usage by invertebrates, this element is quickly used up in the limited volume of the marine aquarium. A high Calcium level for the reef aquarium in which so many organisms build calcareous structures is essential. A gradual decrease in the concentration of this essential element will result in growth stagnation and degeneration of invertebrates. The Calcium level of natural seawater is approximately 400 ppm. A level of at least 400 ppm should be maintained in the aquarium, however, for optimal coral growth 450 ppm is even better. It is recommended to measure the Calcium concentration every week. Special Note Tap water always contains Calcium (up to approximately 100 ppm). When you dissolve Red Sea Salt in tap water,the resulting Calcium level will have an optimum value (450 ppm of Calcium). A slight amount of surplus Calcium may even precipitate out, forming Calcium Carbonate. Users of Reverse Osmosis water, will obtain a slightly lower Calcium level under the same circumstances, since most of the Calcium has been removed by the Reverse Osmosis process. For these aquarists we advise to add Calcium to their R.O. water, for example by putting coral sand, crushed coral or dolomite in their water storage tank, or by using a Calcium additive such as Red Sea’s Reef Success Calcium. Recommendations The simplest, but good method of maintaining a high Calcium level is to change the water regularly, preferably using Red Sea Salt, which is know for its rich calcium content, and adding the Reef Success svided in this kit. If a Calcium level of 350 ppm or less is detected carry out a 10% water change and test the Calcium again © Red Sea Group 2003 Calcium Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Calcium http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=366&title=calcium-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-calcium&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:46:55 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=366&amp;title=calcium-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-calcium&amp;cat=8"><img title="906142.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906142.jpg" alt="906142.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Calcium Corals, calcareous algae and other invertebrates use large amounts of Calcium for the building of their skeletons or shells, which mainly consist of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). Calcium easily precipitates (comes out of solution) as Calcium Carbonate, especially at higher pH values. Because of this, and as a result of continuous usage by invertebrates, this element is quickly used up in the limited volume of the marine aquarium. A high Calcium level for the reef aquarium in which so many organisms build calcareous structures is essential. A gradual decrease in the concentration of this essential element will result in growth stagnation and degeneration of invertebrates. The Calcium level of natural seawater is approximately 400 ppm. A level of at least 400 ppm should be maintained in the aquarium, however, for optimal coral growth 450 ppm is even better. It is recommended to measure the Calcium concentration every week. Special Note Tap water always contains Calcium (up to approximately 100 ppm). When you dissolve Red Sea Salt in tap water,the resulting Calcium level will have an optimum value (450 ppm of Calcium). A slight amount of surplus Calcium may even precipitate out, forming Calcium Carbonate. Users of Reverse Osmosis water, will obtain a slightly lower Calcium level under the same circumstances, since most of the Calcium has been removed by the Reverse Osmosis process. For these aquarists we advise to add Calcium to their R.O. water, for example by putting coral sand, crushed coral or dolomite in their water storage tank, or by using a Calcium additive such as Red Sea’s Reef Success Calcium. Recommendations The simplest, but good method of maintaining a high Calcium level is to change the water regularly, preferably using Red Sea Salt, which is know for its rich calcium content, and adding the Reef Success svided in this kit. If a Calcium level of 350 ppm or less is detected carry out a 10% water change and test the Calcium again. Nitrate Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Nitrate http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=365&title=nitrate-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-nitrate&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:45:02 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=365&amp;title=nitrate-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-nitrate&amp;cat=8"><img title="906194.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906194.jpg" alt="906194.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Nitrate Ammonia, produced by fish as a waste product is oxidized by aerobic bacteria in the biological filter: first to Nitrite (NO2-) and further to Nitrate (NO3-). In nature a complete nitrogen cycle exists, where plants utilize nitrate as a food source, thus maintaining the very low Nitrate level found in unpolluted water. In the aquarium we create a one way system rather than a nutrient cycle. The plant growth is mostly insufficient to use up all the Nitrate introduced by the fish food. In most aquariums, especially in marine aquariums, Nitrate will slowly accumulate, so that unnaturally high concentrations are reached. In the reef aquarium, corals and other invertebrates react distressfully to high Nitrate levels and will eventually die. Nitrate will also act as a nutrient for plants that we do not desire. High Nitrate levels cause the development of blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and hair algae. Fish may eventually become stressed and weakened by the NO3- pollution, which makes them more susceptible to parasitic infection, such as white spot. The Nitrate concentration should be tested every week. This is especially important in the marine aquarium. In a reef aquarium the Nitrate concentration should be kept below 20 PPM, but one should always strive for a zero reading, as all coral reef dwellers are adapted to these low levels, which have been stable over millions of years. Although freshwater and marine fish can tolerate levels over 100 PPM, concentrations like this form a stress factor for the fish and will undoubtedly stimulate the growth of algae. Recommendations To prevent the build up of high levels of Nitrate · Keep the fish density low. · Stimulate plant growth (in the marine aquarium, higher algae like Caulerpa`s, but also soft corals will efficiently use Nitrate). · Remove detritus, dead plants and other dirt. · For the marine aquarium use Nitrate free Salts like Red Sea Salt to perform regular 10% water changes. The use of Protein Skimmers such as Red Sea’s Berlin or Prizm skimmer will remove some of the waste material before it can decompose to Nitrate (and Phosphate). Nitrite Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Nitrite http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=364&title=nitrite-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-nitrite&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:43:23 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=364&amp;title=nitrite-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-nitrite&amp;cat=8"><img title="906137.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906137.jpg" alt="906137.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to Nitrite Aerobic bacteria of the genus Nitrosommonas in the biological filter, oxidize toxic Ammonia to Nitrite. This substance is only slightly less toxic than Ammonia (NH3), but in the biological filter of a well established aquarium Nitrite (NO2-) is quickly transformed into the relatively harmless Nitrate (NO3-), by yet another aerobic bacteria, called Nitrobacter. New Aquariums In a newly set up aquarium a high Nitrite level is a normal phenomenon. It means that the Nitrosomonas bacteria have started the nitrification process and produce Nitrite out of Ammonia. Nitrobacter is however not yet present in sufficient quantities to transform Nitrite into Nitrate. In a newly set up aquarium we advise that you test for Nitrite daily for at least two weeks. Only this, together with testing for Ammonia (use Red Sea’s Ammonia Mini-Lab), will tell you when it is safe to put (more) fish into your aquarium. After this two week period, especially in the marine aquarium, one should start testing for Nitrate, using Red Sea’s Nitrate Mini-Lab. Established Aquariums Nitrite should be tested when there is suspicion of a malfunctioning biological filter. After a long period of time, the filter can get dirty causing Oxygen shortage leading to high Nitrite levels.Since in this case toxic Ammonia can also be present in the aquarium, it is advisable to test for Ammonia, using Red Sea’s Ammonia Mini-Lab. Recommendations A concentration as low as 0.1 ppm is already harmful to many marine invertebrates. Concentrations above 0.3 ppm are harmful for marine and freshwater fish. A typical behavioral symptom of acute Nitrite poisoning is listlessness of the fish. Lower Nitrite levels stress and weaken the fish, making them susceptible to parasitic infections such as white spot. The immediate short term measure should be to change 20 % of the aquarium water every day. For the marine aquarium we advise changing the water using Red Sea’s Red Sea Salt, until the NO2 levels drops below 0.2 ppm. Red Sea Salt is especially useful in emergency situations like this, since it can safely be used immediately after dissolving, the pH and alkalinity being at the natural level. At the same time we recommend to remove fish if possible, reduce feeding, clean the filter and inoculate it with some fresh material out of a good working biological filter, or use a freeze dried bacteria preparation. Ammonia Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / Ammonia http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=363&title=ammonia-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-ammonia&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:41:38 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=363&amp;title=ammonia-home2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-ammonia&amp;cat=8"><img title="906137.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906137.jpg" alt="906137.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Correct water conditions are essential for the health and development of both fish and plants. A stable pH maintained at the natural level for specific aquarium inhabitants, is essential for their well being and therefore should be checked regularly. Red Sea`s Test Labs come in a unique package that easily transforms into a user-friendly workstation. The wide color graduations of the tests have been developed for easy determination of the result. Introduction to Ammonia As fish digest their food, and as bacteria break down uneaten fishfood and other organic matter, Ammonia is set free into the aquarium water. In solution the total dissolved Ammonia changes between 2 forms, the toxic Ammonia (NH3) and less harmful Ammonium ions (NH4 ) according to the pH and temperature of the water. The Red Sea Mini-Lab Ammonia test measures the concentration of total Ammonia present. In any aquarium the majority of the total Ammonia will be in the form of less harmful Ammonium ions (NH4 ). A percentage of the Ammonium ions (NH4 ) change as the pH increases, to the more toxic Ammonia (NH3). Consequently, in marine aquariums with pH 8.1-8.4, Ammonia will present a more serious problem than in freshwater tanks with pH around 7, since more toxic Ammonia will be formed. Concentrations of toxic Ammonia as low as 0.01 ppm already show negative effects on fish, while 0.1 ppm can be deadly to some species. When to test for Ammonia New Aquariums Regular testing of the Ammonium level, pH and temperature, is very important in a newly set up aquarium where high levels of Ammonia are normal. As the new aquarium and the biological filter develop, nitrifying bacteria begin to break down the toxic Ammonia to a safe level, so that more animals can gradually be introduced. We advise to test daily for two to four weeks in a new aquarium. Established Aquariums Even low Ammonia levels stress and weaken the fish, which makes them more susceptible to parasitic infections such as white spot. Ammonia poisoning is usually displayed by acute symptoms of fish swimming very rapidly as in panic; or breathing very rapidly; or jumping out of the water. The chronic symptoms are gill and skin damage and sometimes color fading. At the first sign of any of the above symptoms test for Ammonia. Ammonia levels may rise in older aquariums, when the biological filter substrate has been damaged, for example after administration of a medicine. Also a blocked or fouled filter as well as decaying matter in the tank, may give rise to toxic Ammonia levels. Recommendations The toxic Ammonia levels are lowered by reducing feeding to an absolute minimum. Remove any decaying material and if possible as many of the fish as you can. If a blocked or fouled filter is the suspected problem, the majority of Ammonia of at least 0.01 ppm which will have a negative effect on the fish. Special Tip Be extremely careful when changing water with a high Ammonia level and a low pH. The water change will indeed remove Ammonia, but when the new water with a higher pH is added, you will increase the percentage of toxic Ammonia, to a level that may be acutely lethal and kill the fish. Always check the pH first, when you want to change Ammonia polluted water. pH /Alkalinity Home / Test Labs / Saltwater / pH /Alkalinity http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=362&title=ph2falkalinityhome2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-ph2falkalinity&cat=8 Wed, 19 May 2004 23:39:36 -0500 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=362&amp;title=ph2falkalinityhome2f-test-labs2f-saltwater2f-ph2falkalinity&amp;cat=8"><img title="906134.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/906134.jpg" alt="906134.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: NeilsReef<br /><br />Description: Introduction to pH &amp; Alkalinity The pH is a very important parameter in the biology of aquatic organisms. It is a measure of the acidity or basicity of the water. The scale runs from zero to 14. Zero is the most acidic, 7 is neutral and 14 is the most basic. A change of 1 pH unit, for example from 7 to 6, means that the water gets 10 times more acidic. Due to its chemistry, saltwater is able to absorb a certain amount of acidic matter without a resulting change in pH. The substances in the water that do this are called buffers. The ability of water to withstand changes in pH is called buffer capacity. Based on a method of measuring buffer capacity it is referred to as the alkalinity of seawater. In some of the literature alkalinity is termed “Carbonate Hardness” or “ KH Carbonate Buffer”. This is exactly the same measurement as is measured in the Alkalinity Mini-Lab Test. pH and alkalinity The pH of natural seawater varies geographically in the world’s oceans between 8.1 and 8.4. On a local scale the pH is however remarkably stable. This is due to dissolved buffers (mainly bicarbonates), which prevent pH changes. Because of the enormous volume of the ocean, a nearly inexhaustible stock of buffers are present: the sea can take up large amounts of acids, without a noticeable change in pH. Compared to the sea the volume of a marine aquarium is very limited and therefore the alkalinity is also limited. As fish produce acid waste products and as the buffering substances are used up by calcareous algae and invertebrates, the buffer capacity may become so low that the pH could suddenly fall. This would be very dangerous to all organisms in the aquarium. The alkalinity is measured in so called milli-equivalents of alkaline substances (for example sodium bicarbonate) per liter. These alkaline substances have the power to prevent pH drops. The alkalinity of natural seawater is approximately 2.5 milli-equivalents per liter. This level should also be maintained in the marine aquarium. A common symptom of an unsuitable pH is pH-stress. Especially in the marine aquarium, unsuitable pH values are very stressful to fish, and increase the chance of the fish being susceptible to disease (marine white spot). To maintain a correct and stable pH, check the pH and alkalinity weekly. Recommendations: A low pH should be corrected by a 10% water change every day until the right pH is reached. A low alkalinity should be corrected by firstly making a 10% water change. Re-check the alkalinity and if still low, add Reef Success Buff until a normal level can be reached. It is permissable to add Red Sea’s Marine Success Buff. If a more accurate test is required, purchase Alkalinity Pro Test, which is part of the Red Sea Coral Kit. Maintaining a stable pH and a high buffer capacity of your aquarium can be achieved in several ways. Change 10% of your aquarium water every week, Red Sea’s Red Sea Salt is particularly suitable as it is rich in natural buffers, enabling you to keep the buffer capacity at the optimum level. Weekly water changes should be accompanied by regular addition of a buffering solution such as Red Sea’s Reef Success Buff supplement which contains carbonates and bicarbonates of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Boron in a balanced formula. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=212&cat=8 Sun, 25 Jan 2004 13:11:11 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=212&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Tunze_Conductivity_Meter.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Tunze_Conductivity_Meter.jpg" alt="41Tunze_Conductivity_Meter.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: robust hard coal electrode and a temperature probe have been combined to a single-stick measuring electrode in these measuring instruments. These reliable pocket-measuring instruments come with a wall holding device and are automatically temperature-compensated. They can be employed as a field measuring instrument or as a stationary measuring station (power supply, accessory). The units can be recalibrated by means of a calibrating solution. Model 7032M is used to precisely determine the conductivity in fresh and salt water (up to 200 mS / cm). http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=210&cat=8 Sun, 25 Jan 2004 13:06:54 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=210&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Tunze_mV_ORP_Controller-Set.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Tunze_mV_ORP_Controller-Set.jpg" alt="41Tunze_mV_ORP_Controller-Set.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: The Tunze mV (ORP) Controller-Set consists of mV controller 7071 and switched socket outlet 7075.11 incl. power supply unit. On account of the adjustable time interval metering system, a careful ozone distribution is possible preventing an overdose. The mV controller 7071 is apocket-sized measuring instrument with wall holding device has the same construction as the pH controller. The unit is supplied complete with a long-life high-quality electrode of glass and 9 V battery. By means of a connected switched socket-outlet the mV controller can be extended to a complete ozone control station. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=208&cat=8 Sun, 25 Jan 2004 13:02:51 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=208&amp;cat=8"><img title="41American_Marine_Pinpoint_Aquarium_Controller_Monitor_for_pH_mV_ORP_and_O2.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41American_Marine_Pinpoint_Aquarium_Controller_Monitor_for_pH_mV_ORP_and_O2.jpg" alt="41American_Marine_Pinpoint_Aquarium_Controller_Monitor_for_pH_mV_ORP_and_O2.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Maintenance: Clean the probe tip frequently (every 3 ~ 4 weeks) using a soft toothbrush. Push the probe tip down into the wet bristles and rotate the probe 3 ~ 4 times. This will clean the inner surfaces of the probe as well as the sensing glass and reference junctions. The pH probe should be discarded and replaced when it can no longer be calibrated with 2 different calibration fluids. The usefull life of a pH probe is approximately 18 months of continous duty. Check calibration monthly to verify your pH readings. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=192&cat=8 Sun, 25 Jan 2004 12:36:46 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=192&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Hanna_Instruments_Testers.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Hanna_Instruments_Testers.jpg" alt="41Hanna_Instruments_Testers.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: The pHep® 4 measures pH and temperature. Thanks to a stability indicator and hold feature, you'll know when to take the reading and you can freeze the display for easy and accurate recording. A stainless steel temperature probe enables fast, precise temperature measurement and auto-compensation. Includes 4 x 1.5V batteries, pH electrode, and electrode replacement tool. The DiST® 5 offers a 3-in-1 solution that instantly tests conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and temperature. The unit includes adjustable TDS ratio and temperature compensation. These testers also feature a stability indicator and hold feature - you'll know when to take the reading and you can freeze the display for an easy, accurate recording. A stainless steel temperature probe enables faster, more precise temperature measurement. Includes EC/TDS Probe, 4 x 1.5V batteries, and electrode replacement tool. Both testers include easy-to-read LED displays; automatic shut-off; readings in C° or F°; floating, corrosion-proof casings; replaceable electrode; and battery level indicator. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=189&cat=8 Sun, 25 Jan 2004 12:31:57 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=189&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Sharp_Testers.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Sharp_Testers.jpg" alt="41Sharp_Testers.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: We offer these user-friendly quality pocket testers for the hobbyist and professional. Each offers quick and reliable measurements. Rugged housing prevents water from seeping into seams, making the testers water resistant up to the LCD. With the extendable cloth reference junction system, reading errors from clogged junctions are eliminated. Conductivity Tester includes a stainless steel ATC housing so temperature compensation is performed instantly. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Tester is a must have for every R.O. user. Two-year warranty. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=187&cat=8 Sun, 25 Jan 2004 12:28:19 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=187&amp;cat=8"><img title="41High_Precision_Hydrometer.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41High_Precision_Hydrometer.jpg" alt="41High_Precision_Hydrometer.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Handmade in Germany by experienced craftsmen, these hydrometers have a maximum deviation of 0.0005. The Tropic Marin Hydrometer will never need calibration and is indispensable for scientists and the committed hobbyist. The higher price will soon pay off by an always-exact salinity in the aquarium. Scale from 1.018 to 1.028, with a marked recommendation range 1.020 to 1.023. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=183&cat=8 Sun, 25 Jan 2004 12:23:39 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=183&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Deep_Six_Hydrometer.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Deep_Six_Hydrometer.jpg" alt="41Deep_Six_Hydrometer.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: This hydrometer takes true water samples six inches below the surface, which gives more accurate reading of salinity than surface samples. Gives temperature-corrected readings in warm water aquariums. Results accurate to 0.001 specific gravity units. Designed for years of accurate, reliable use http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=106&cat=8 Sun, 18 Jan 2004 14:11:22 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=106&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Phosphate_Test_Kit_60_tests.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Phosphate_Test_Kit_60_tests.jpg" alt="41Phosphate_Test_Kit_60_tests.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Measures phosphate levels in two ranges: Low 0.01-1.0 ppm, High 0.02-2.0 ppm (natural seawater is 0.01 to 0.02 ppm). Enough reagents for 60 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=105&cat=8 Sun, 18 Jan 2004 14:09:27 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=105&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Alkalinity_Test_Kit_100-200_tests.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Alkalinity_Test_Kit_100-200_tests.jpg" alt="41Alkalinity_Test_Kit_100-200_tests.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Measures strontium levels in increments of 5 ppm. Unaffected by magnesium or calcium interference. For saltwater only. Enough reagents for 40 tests http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=104&cat=8 Sun, 18 Jan 2004 14:08:58 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=104&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Lamotte_turbidity_meter_model_2020.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Lamotte_turbidity_meter_model_2020.jpg" alt="41Lamotte_turbidity_meter_model_2020.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: This portable, compact meter provides an extremely accurate way for taking turbidity measurements in the field. An ideal choice for regulatory monitoring, waste water testing and environmental water analysis in the field or the lab. A multi-detector optical configuration minimizes stray light and color interferences assuring long term stability of the reading. Readings are taken over a 3 second period minimizing any fluctuations in readings attributed to large particles. The instrument meets or exceeds EPA design specifications for NPDWR and NPDES turbidity monitoring programs as specified by USEPA method 180.1. There is also an EPA compliance reading mode which rounds the reading to meet EPA reporting requirements. The 2020 Turbidity Meter comes with an AC adapter, 9 Volt battery, six sample vials w/caps, standardization package consisting of standards and filter assembly, sturdy carrying case, and RS232 port. Measures 3.25 in. x 6.25 in. x 2.5 in., weight is 1 pound. One year warranty. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=103&cat=8 Sun, 18 Jan 2004 14:07:54 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=103&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Silicate_Test_Kit_60_tests.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Silicate_Test_Kit_60_tests.jpg" alt="41Silicate_Test_Kit_60_tests.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Ideal for use in marine or saltwater systems. Measures soluble silicate in two ranges, 0.03 to 3.0 ppm and 0.3 to 30 ppm as silicate. Enough reagents for 60 tests. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=102&cat=8 Sun, 18 Jan 2004 14:05:55 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=102&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Underwater_Remote_Thermometer.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Underwater_Remote_Thermometer.jpg" alt="41Underwater_Remote_Thermometer.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: This 12V thermometer will allow temperatures to be monitored from up to 20' away. It may be dashboard-mounted in hauling trucks or boats (case is water resistant) with its 20' sensor cable. The bright red 3/4&quot; digital readout can be seen even in direct sunlight. Reads in Fahrenheit only. Accuracy 1/10 degree, 0.0-99.9 degrees F with calibration adjustment on back. Made in USA. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=101&cat=8 Sun, 18 Jan 2004 14:04:23 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=101&amp;cat=8"><img title="41Magnesium_Test_Kit_50_tests.jpg" border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/data/8/thumbs/41Magnesium_Test_Kit_50_tests.jpg" alt="41Magnesium_Test_Kit_50_tests.jpg" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Measures magnesium levels in increments of 30 ppm. Maintaining alkalinity and calcium levels becomes difficult when magnesium concentrations get too low. Enough reagents for 50 tests. http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=100&cat=8 Sun, 18 Jan 2004 14:01:27 -0600 <a href="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/showproduct.php?product=100&amp;cat=8"><img border="0" src="http://www.reeffrontiers.com/reviews/images/nothumb.gif" alt="" /></a><br /><br />by: mojoreef<br /><br />Description: Every year it seems, technology gives us a better products at a cheaper price. This infrared non-contact thermometer is a good example. It is perfect for checking samples, including water surfaces without cross contamination, measuring objects too hot to touch and especially for checking temperatures in hard to reach areas. It has a half second response time and a selectable hold function which freezes the display for 7 seconds. Optional laser sighting is handy for pinpointing exact spot to be measured. Reads either C or F. Maximum recommended sampling distance: 4 ft. Range: -18 to 260 C (0 to 500 F). Accuracy: /- 2 C or 3 F. 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