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      Red Sea Bio Filters Merlin
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      Description: A biological filter is the single most important type of filter used in the aquarium.

      As fish digest their food, ammonia is produced as a waste product. If no measures are taken the toxic ammonia will rapidly increase to lethal levels in the limited water volume of the aquarium. Bacteria of the genus Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter oxidize ammonia through nitrite to nitrate, (which is non toxic to fish). This oxidation is known as the nitrification process.

      To be effective in an aquarium the nitrifying bacteria have to be present in sufficient numbers to be able to convert the fishes` waste products completely to nitrate. The application of bacteria in water treatment is called biological filtration (bio-filtration) and over the years various methods of bio-filtration have been developed for use with marine and freshwater aquaria and ponds.

      The efficiency of a biological filter depends on a number of parameters:

      · A large enough surface area of a suitable media for the bacteria to form a living layer also known as a bio-film.

      · Constant access to the ammonia, nitrite and oxygen (the "food" source of the bacteria).

      · A stable pH and temperature.

      · Protection from toxic substances such as contained in fish medications.

      Based on the inherent advantages of the Fluidized bed over alternative methods, Red Sea has conducted significant research into developing the MERLIN fluidized bio-filter.

      Fluidized bed filters in general and the MERLIN in particular, have the following natural advantages over a static filter bed (Trickle Filter/ Undergravel Filter):

      · A very large surface area per unit volume, which is a significant factor that limits the potential capacity of a particular filter system.

      · Optimum availability of oxygen, ammonia and nitrite, since every bacteria covered particle is in constant motion and completely surrounded by water.

      · Thin bio-film, due to the continuous brushing of the fluidized media. Thin bio-films are more effective, since the exchange of minerals and dissolved gases between the bacteria and their environment is faster.

      · The continuous motion does not allow the buildup of detritus, clogging, channeling effect or formation of anaerobic areas within the filter.

      · The constant motion facilitates the transportation of the bacteria colony throughout the filter media.

      · The absence of detritus minimizes the loss of bacteria if water flow is interrupted: i.e. filter can be switched off and moved without damage.

      Merlin Up to 250gal/1000ltr Biological HangOn/Stand Alone Chemical Cartridge Inc.

      A compact fluidized-bed biological canister filter, suitable for all types of aquariums up to 1000 liters. The resealable canister design includes an integral flow regulator to optimize the fluidization and a non-return valve to prevent back- siphoning of the media in the event of a power failure. The unit can be completely disassembled enabling easy access for set-up and maintenance.

      Installation options: Hang-on or freestanding external filter, in aquarium, filter compartment or sump.

      The Merlin requires a pump rated at 150 gal/hr, 5ft. head pump (not supplied with the unit).
      · Capacity - over 20 times the filtering capacity of the same volume trickle filter.

      · Efficiency - optimum availability of oxygen, ammonia and nitrite to the nitrifying bacteria maximizes the total conversion from ammonia to nitrate.

      · Response - at least 35% faster than a trickle filter with 5 times the volume of filter media in total conversion of ammonia to nitrate.

      · Constant motion-ensures a thin bio-film (bacteria colony) and prevents build up of detritus that can cause clogging (channeling effect) and anaerobic areas.

      Thousands of hours of our research into reef, marine fish, tropical and goldfish aquariums have shown that a fluidized bed is the most efficient and effective form of biological filtration. Experiments demonstrated that the Merlin, while significantly smaller than other bio-filters, can support bio-loads far in excess of other limiting factors such as behavioral patterns of the fish, and responds faster to an increase in bio-loads than other types of filters
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      Registered: May 2004
      Location: Troutdale, Oregon

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